Primary Sources Database

Commentary on Sima Qian's work focusing on the early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Commentary on Sima Qian's work focusing on the early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Commentary on Sima Qian's work focusing on the early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Commentary on Sima Qian's work focusing on the early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Early history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

Late history of the Xuŋa (Xiongnu)

History of the Xunı (Huns)

History of the Xunı (Huns)

History of the Xunı (Huns)

History of the Xunı (Huns)

History of the Xunı (Huns)

History of the Xunı (Huns)

Name changes of the tribes and clans loyal to the Tabğaç (Tuoba) state of Northern Wei

History of the Tatars, Yu-wen, and the Tägäräk

History of the Western Regions during the Hunnish Era

History of the Western Regions during the Hunnish Era

Wei envoy's journey to the Yedivar (Hephthalites)

Wei envoy's journey to the Yedivar (Hephthalites)

History of the Tatars, Yu-wen, and the Tägäräk

Name changes of the tribes and clans loyal to the Tabğaç (Tuoba) state of Northern Wei

Description of the tribes under the Tägäräk

Description of the tribes under the Tägäräk

Origin of the Kök Türük

Origin of the Kök Türük

Xuŋa (Xiongnu) during the Jin Dynasty

Xuŋa (Xiongnu) during the Jin Dynasty

The legend of Oğuz Qağan