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Bumın Qağan the first Kök Türük

The life and legend of the first Kök Türük Qağan

Etymology of Bumın


Bumın is likely a metathesized and harmonized loan, possibly from an Indo-Persian language. The original form may have been /*bu(n)mi/ as *mi is a common suffix among the nobility of the Aşıŋa people.

Bumın's name is recorded in Old Turkic as Bumın (𐰉𐰆𐰢𐰣) /*bumɨn/ and in Middle Chinese as Tu-men (土門) /*tʰuo-mwən/.


Early History


Paternally, Bumın's clan was likely descended from the Hunnic Ju-qu (沮渠) clan who founded the Northern Liang (北涼). However, as their origin myth in the Zhoushu notes, they were meternally related to the Aşıŋa people.

According to the Xin Tangshu, Bumın's father was the Great Yabğu (大葉護) known as Tumı (吐務) pronounced in Late Han Chinese as /*tʰuo-mju/. Little else is known about Tumı Yabğu other than his name and title.

Under the Tatars

During the early 6th century C.E., Bumın ruled over the tribal confederation of the Kök Türük or "Easterns Türks," once a division of the Tägäräk confederation.

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