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The Book of Wei (魏書) 113 (English)

TBD

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Emperor Xian (獻帝) used his oldest brother as the Qırğır (紇骨) clan, later changed to Hu (胡)

Qırğır (紇骨) LH *gət-kuət – Hu 胡 LH *gɑ

The next older brother was the Pu (普) clan, later changed to Zhou (周)

Pu (普) LH *pʰɑ

The next elder brother was the Tabğaç (拓拔) clan, later changed to Zhangsun (長孫)

the Tabğaç (拓拔) LH *tʰɑk-bɑt

The younger brother was the Darqat (達奚) clan, later changed to Xi (奚).

Darqat (達奚) LH *dɑt-ge

The next younger brother was Yi-lou (伊婁) clan, later changed to Yi (伊).

Yi-lu (伊婁) LH *ʔi-lo

The next younger brother was Qiu-dun (丘敦) clan, later changed to Qiu (丘).

Qiu-dun (丘敦) LH *kʰu-tuən

The next younger brother was Hou (侯) clan, later changed to Hai (亥).

Hou (侯) LH *go – Hai (亥) LH *gə

Since these times, the seven clans have been prosperous.

He also ordered his uncle Yin (胤) as the Yi-jan (乙旃) clan, later changed to Shu-sun (叔孫)

Yin (胤) LH *jɨn – Yi-jan (乙旃) LH *ʔɨt-tśan – Shu-sun (叔孫) LH *śuk-suən

He also ordered to Shu-zhu (疏屬) as the Ju-kun (車焜) clan, later changed to Che (車)

Shu-zhu (疏屬) LH *ṣɑ-tśok – Ju-kun (車焜) LH *kɨɑ-kuən


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During the time of Emperor Shen-yuan (神元皇帝), the rest of the tribal surnames were altered:


Qiu-mu-ling (丘穆陵) clan, later changed to the Mu (穆) clan

Qiu-mu-ling (丘穆陵) LH * kʰu-muk-lɨŋ

Bayırqu (步六孤) clan, later changed to the Lu (陸) clan.

Bayırqu (步六孤) LH *bɑ-liuk-kua – Lu (陸) LH *liuk “land”

Halat (賀賴) clan, later changed to the He (賀) clan.

Halat (賀賴) LH *gɑi-lɑs

Duqa (獨孤) clan, later changed to the Liu (劉) clan.

Duqa (獨孤) LH *dok-kuɑ

He-lou (賀樓) clan, later changed to the Lou (樓) clan.

He-lou (賀樓) LH *gɑi-lo

Wu-niu-yu (勿忸于) clan, later changed to the Yu (于) clan.

Wu-niu-yu (勿忸于) LH *mut-ṇuk-wɑ

Shi-lian (是連) clan, later changed to the Lian (連) clan.

Shi-lian (是連) LH *dźɨk-lian

Bu-lan (僕闌) clan, later changed to the Bu (僕) clan.

Bu-lan (僕闌) LH *bok-lɑn

Ruo-gan (若干) clan, later changed to the Guo (苟) clan.

Ruo-gan (若干) LH *ńɑk-kɑn – Guo (苟) LH *ko

Ba-lie (拔列) clan, later changed to the Liang (梁) clan.

Ba-lie (拔列) LH *bɑt-liat

Bo-lue (撥略) clan, later changed to the Lue (略) clan.

Bo-lue (撥略) LH *bɑt-liɑk

Ruo-kou-yin (若口引) clan, later changed to the Kou (寇) clan.

Ruo-kou-yin (若口引) LH *ńɑk-kʰo-jin – Kou (寇) LH *kʰo “to plunder”

Chi-luo (叱羅) clan, later changed to the Luo (羅) clan.

Chi-luo (叱羅) LH *tśʰit-lɑi

Pu-lou-ru (普陋茹) clan, later changed to the Ru (茹) clan.

Pu-lou-ru (普陋茹) LH *pʰɑ-lo-ńɑ

He-ge (賀葛) clan, later changed to the (葛) clan.

He-ge (賀葛) LH *gɑi-kɑt

Shi-fen (是賁) clan, later changed to the Feng (封) clan.

Shi-fen (是賁) LH *dźe-bun – Feng (封) LH *puoŋ “mound; to increase”

A-fu-yu (阿伏于) clan, later changed to the A (阿) clan.

A-fu-yu (阿伏于) LH *ʔɑ-bu-wɑ

Ke-de-yan (可地延) clan, later changed to the Yan (延) clan.

Ke-de-yan (可地延) LH *kʰɑi-di-jan

A-lu-huan (阿鹿桓) clan, later changed to the Lu (鹿) clan.

A-lu-huan (阿鹿桓) LH *ʔɑ-lok-ɣuan

Ta-luo-ba (他駱拔) clan, later changed to the Luo (駱) clan.

Ta-luo-ba (他駱拔) LH *tʰɑi-lɑk-bɑt

Bo-xi (薄奚) clan, later changed to the Bo (薄) clan.

Bo-xi (薄奚) LH *bɑk-ge

Avar (烏丸) clan, later changed to the Avar (桓) clan.

Avar (烏丸) LH *ʔɑ-ɣuan – Avar LH *ɣuan

Su-he (素和) clan, later changed to the He (和) clan.

Su-he (素和) LH *sɑ-ɣuɑi

Tu-yu-hun (吐谷渾) clan, remained the Tu-yu-hun (吐谷渾) clan.

Tu-yu-hun (吐谷渾) LH *tʰɑ-jok-ɣuen

Hu-gu-kou-yin (胡古口引) clan, later changed to the Hou (侯) clan.

Hu-gu-kou-yin (胡古口引) LH *gɑ-kɑ-kʰo-jin

He-ruo (賀若) clan, remained the He-ruo (賀若) clan.

He-ruo (賀若) LH *gɑi-ńɑk

Yu-hun (谷渾) clan, later changed to the Hun (渾) clan.

Yu-hun (谷渾) LH *jok-ɣuen

Pi-lou (匹婁) clan, later changed to the Lou (婁) clan.

Pi-lou (匹婁) LH *pʰit-lo

Eltäbär (俟力伐) clan, later changed to the Bao (鮑) clan.

Eltäbär (俟力伐) LH *dziə-lɨk-buɑt – Bao (鮑) LH *bɔu

Tu-fu-lu (吐伏盧) clan, later changed to the Lu (盧) clan.

Tu-fu-lu (吐伏盧) LH *tʰɑ-bu-lɑ

Die-yun (牒云) clan, later changed to the Yun (云) clan.

Die-yun (牒云) LH *dep-wun

Shi-pun (是云) clan, later changed to the Shi (是) clan.

Shi-pun (是云) LH *dźɨk-wun

Chi-li (叱利) clan, later changed to the Li (利) clan.

Chi-li (叱利) LH * tśʰit-li

Fu-lu (副呂) clan, later changed to the Fu (副) clan.

Fu-lu (副呂) LH *pʰu-liɑ

Na (那) clan, remained the Na (那) clan.

Na (那) LH *nɑ

Ru-luo (如羅) clan, later changed to the Ru (如) clan.

Ru-luo (如羅) LH *ńa-lɑ(i)

Qi-fu (乞扶) clan, later changed to the Fu (扶) clan.

Qi-fu (乞扶) LH *kʰɨət-bua

A-dan (阿單) clan, later changed to the Dan (單) clan.

A-dan (阿單) LH *ʔɑ-tɑn

Qi-ji (俟幾) clan, later changed to the Ji (幾) clan.

Qi-ji (俟幾) LH *dziə-kɨi

He-er (賀兒) clan, later changed to the Er (兒) clan.

He-er (賀兒) LH *gɑi-ńe

Tu-xi (吐奚) clan, later changed to the Gu (古) clan.

Tu-xi (吐奚) LH *tʰɑ-ge – Gu (古) LH *ka “ancient”

Chu-lian (出連) clan, later changed to the Bi (畢) clan.

Chu-lian (出連) LH *tśʰuit-lian – Bi (畢) LH *bit “complete”

Yu (庾) clan, remained the Yu (庾) clan.

Yu (庾) LH *jo

He-ba (賀拔) clan, later changed to the He (何) clan.

He-ba (賀拔) LH *gɑi-bɑt – He (何) LH *gɑi

Chi-lu (叱呂) clan, later changed to the Lu (呂) clan.

Chi-lu (叱呂) LH *tśʰit-liɑ

Mo-na-lou (莫那婁) clan, later changed to the Mo (莫) clan.

Mo-na-lou (莫那婁) LH *mɑ-nɑ-lo

Xi-dou-lu (奚斗盧) clan, later changed to the Suo-lu (索盧) clan.

Xi-dou-lu (奚斗盧) LH *ge-to-lɑ – Suo-lu (索盧) LH *sɑk-lu

Mo-lu (莫蘆) clan, later changed to the Lu (蘆) clan.

Mo-lu (莫蘆) LH *mɑ-lɑ

Chu-dai-Han (出大汗) clan, later changed to the Han (韓) clan.

Chu-dai-Han (出大汗) LH *tśʰuit-dɑh-gɑn – Han (韓) LH *gɑn

Mei-lu-zhen (沒路真) clan, later changed to the Lu (路) clan.

Mei-lu-zhen (沒路真) LH *mət-lɑ-tśin

Hu-de-yu (扈地于) clan, later changed to the Hu (扈) clan.

Hu-de-yu (扈地于) LH *gɑ-di-wa

Mo-yu (莫輿) clan, later changed to the Yu (輿) clan.

Mo-yu (莫輿) LH *mɑ-jɑ

He-gan (紇干) clan, later changed to the Gan (干) clan.

He-gan (紇干) LH *gət-kɑn

Qi-fu-jin (俟伏斤) clan, later changed to the Fu (伏) clan.

Qi-fu-jin (俟伏斤) LH *dziə-bu-kɨən

Shi-lou (是樓) clan, later changed to the Gao (高) clan.

Shi-lou (是樓) LH *dźe-lo – Gao (高) LH *kɑu

Shi-tu (尸突) clan, later changed to the Qu (屈) clan.

Shi-tu (尸突) LH *śi-tʰuət – Qu (屈) LH *kʰut

Da-lu (沓盧) clan, later changed to the Da (沓) clan.

Da-lu (沓盧) LH *dəp-lɑ

Wa-shi-lan (嗢石蘭) clan, later changed to the Shi (石) clan.

Wa-shi-lan (嗢石蘭) LH *ʔit-dźak-lɑn

Jie-pi (解枇) clan, later changed to the Jie (解) clan.

Jie-pi (解枇) LH *kɛ-bi

Qi-jin (奇斤) clan, later changed to the Qi (奇) clan.

Qi-jin (奇斤) LH *kɨe-kɨən

Xu-bo (須卜) clan, later changed to the Bo (卜) clan.

Xu-bo (須卜) LH *sio-pok

Qiu-lin (丘林) clan, later changed to the Lin (林) clan.

Qiu-lin (丘林) LH *kʰu-lim

Da-mo-gan (大莫干) clan, later changed to the He (郃) clan.

Da-mo-gan LH *dɑh-mɑ-kɑn – He (郃) LH *gəp

Er-mian (尒緜) clan, later changed to the Mian (緜) clan.

Er-mian (尒緜) LH *ńe-mian

Gai-lou (蓋樓) clan, later changed to the Lou (蓋) clan.

Gai-lou (蓋樓) LH *gɑp-lo

Su-li (素黎) clan, later changed to the Li (黎) clan.

Su-li (素黎) LH *sɑ-lei

Ke-dan (渴單) clan, later changed to the Dan (單) clan.

Ke-dan (渴單) LH *kʰɑt-dźar

Yi-dou-juan (壹斗眷) clan, later changed to the Ming (明) clan.

Yi-dou-juan (壹斗眷) LH *ʔit-to-kyan – Ming (明) “bright”

Chi-men (叱門) clan, later changed to the Men (門) clan.

Chi-men (叱門) LH *tśʰit-mən

Su-liu-jin (宿六斤) clan, later changed to the Su (宿) clan.

Su-liu-jin (宿六斤) LH *siuk-liuk-kɨən

Bi-jin (馝䢴) clan, later changed to the Jin (䢴) clan.

Bi-jin (馝䢴) LH *bit-wa

Tu-nan (土難) clan, later changed to the Shan (山) clan.

Tu-nan (土難) LH *dɑ-nɑn – Shan (山) “mountain”

Wu-yin (屋引) clan, later changed to the Fang (房) clan.

Wu-yin (屋引) LH *ʔok-jin – Fang (房) “house”

Shu-luo-yu (樹洛于) clan, later changed to the Shu (樹) clan.

Shu-luo-yu (樹洛于) LH *dźo-lɑk-wa

Yi-fu (乙弗) clan, later changed to the Yi (乙) clan.

Yi-fu (乙弗) LH *ʔuət-put


The Eastern Yu-wen (宇文) and Mu-rong (慕容) clans, that is the clans in the East during Emperor Huan’s (宣帝) time, were the most powerful and prosperous (among the) tribes. Their histories are different.

Yu-wen (宇文) LH *wa-mun – Mu-rong (慕容) LH *mɑ-joŋ


The Southern Mao-juan (茂眷) clan, later changed to the Mao (茂) clan.

Mao-juan (茂眷) LH *mu-kyan

You-lian (宥連) clan, later changed to the Yun (雲) clan.

You-lian (宥連) LH *wu-lian – Yun (雲) “cloud”

The Southern He-dou-ling (紇豆陵) clan, later changed to the Dou (竇) clan.

He-dou-ling (紇豆陵) LH *ɣet-do-lɨŋ – Dou (竇) LH *do

Hou-mo-chen (侯莫陳) clan, later changed to the Chen (陳) clan.

Hou-mo-chen (侯莫陳) LH *gə-mɑk-din

Ku-di (庫狄) clan, later changed to the Di (狄) clan.

Ku-di (庫狄) LH *kʰɑ-dek

Tai-luo-ji (太洛稽) clan, later changed to the Ji (稽) clan.

Tai-luo-ji (太洛稽) LH *tʰɑs-lɑk-kei

Ke-ba (柯拔) clan, later changed to the Ke (柯) clan.

Ke-ba (柯拔) LH *kɑ-bɑt

The Western Yu-chi (尉遲) clan, later changed to the Yu (尉) clan.

Western Yu-chi (尉遲) LH *ʔus-di

Ba-lu-gen (步鹿根) clan, later changed to the Ba (步) clan.

Ba-lu-gen (步鹿根) LH *bɑ-lok-kən

Po-duo-luo (破多羅) clan, later changed to the Pan (潘) clan.

Po-duo-luo (破多羅) LH *pʰɑi-tɑi-lɑ(i) – Pan (潘) LH *pʰɑn

Chi-gan (叱干) clan, later changed to the Xue (薛) clan.

Chi-gan (叱干) LH *tśʰit-kɑn – Xue (薛) “marsh”

Qi-nu (俟奴) clan, later changed to the Qi (俟) clan.

Qi-nu (俟奴) LH *dziə-nɑ

Zhan-chi (輾遲) clan, later changed to the Zhan (展) clan.

Zhan-chi LH *ṭian-d̦i – Zhan (展) LH *ṭian “to extend”

Fei-lian (費連) clan, later changed to the Fei (費) clan.

Fei-lian (費連) LH *pʰus-lian

Qi-lian (其連) clan, later changed to the Qi (綦) clan.

Qi-lian (其連) LH *gɨe-lian – Qi (綦) LH *gɨe “grey”

Qu-jin (去斤) clan, later changed to the Ai (艾) clan.

Qu-jin (去斤) LH *kʰɨɑ-kɨən – Ai (艾) “green”

Ke-huo (渴侯) clan, later changed to the Gou (緱) clan.

Ke-huo (渴侯) LH *kʰɑt-gə – Gou (緱) LH *go “cord binding on a sword hilt”

Chi-lu (叱盧) clan, later changed to the Zhu (祝) clan.

Chi-lu (叱盧) LH *tśʰit-lɑ – Zhu (祝) LH *tśuk “to pray”

He-ji (和稽) clan, later changed to the Huan (緩) clan.

He-ji (和稽) LH *ɣuɑi-kei – Huan (緩) LH *ɣuɑn “to relax”

Yuan-lai (冤賴) clan, later changed to the Jiu (就) clan.

Yuan-lai (冤賴) LH *ʔyɑn-lɑs – Jiu (就) LH *dziu “to succeed”

Ürpän (嗢盆) clan, later changed to the Wa (溫) clan.

Ürpän (嗢盆) LH *ʔuət-bən – Wa (溫) LH *ʔuən

Da-bo (達勃) clan, later changed to the Bao (褒) clan.

Da-bo (達勃) LH *dɑt-bət – Bao (褒) LH *pou “To honor; large, vast”

Duqa Xun (獨孤渾) clan, later changed to the Du (杜) clan.

Duqa Xun (獨孤渾) LH *dok-kuɑ-ɣuen – Du (杜) LH *dɑ


For all these tribes, their great elders each command a multitude, and the Yu-chi (尉遲) are now below the He-lan (賀蘭) tribe’s clans.


Northern He-lan (北方賀蘭) clan, later changed to the He (賀) clan.

Northern He-lan (北方賀蘭) LH *gɑi-lɑn

Yu-dou-zhen (郁都甄) clan, later changed to the Zhen (甄) clan.

Yu-dou-zhen (郁都甄) LH *ʔuk-tɑ-tśɨn

He-xi (紇奚) clan, later changed to the Ji (嵇) clan.

He-xi (紇奚) LH *ɣet-ge – Ji (嵇) LH *ɣei ‘mountain name in Henan’

Yue-lei (越勒) clan, later changed to the Yue (越) clan.

Yue-lei (越勒) LH *wɑt-lək

Çina (叱奴) clan, later changed to the Liang (狼) clan.

Çina (叱奴) LH *tśʰit-nɑ – Liang (狼) “wolf”

Ke-zhu-hun (渴燭渾) clan, later changed to the Wei (味) clan.

Ke-zhu-hun (渴燭渾) LH *kʰɑt-tśok-ɣuen – Wei (味) “taste; smell; flavor”

Ku-ru-guan (庫褥官) clan, later changed to the Ku (庫) clan.

Ku-ru-guan (庫褥官) LH *kʰɑ-ńok-kuɑn

Wu-luo-lan (烏洛蘭) clan, later changed to the Lan (蘭) clan.

Wu-luo-lan (烏洛蘭) LH *ʔɑ-lɑk-lɑn

Yi-na-lou (一那蔞) clan, later changed to the Lou (蔞) clan.

Yi-na-lou (一那蔞) LH *ʔit-nɑ-guo

Yu-fu (羽弗) clan, later changed to the Yu (羽) clan.

Yu-fu (羽弗) LH *wɑ-put


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