The Book of Sui (隋書) 84 (English)

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Tägäräk (鐵勒)


The ancestors of the Tägäräk are the descendants of the Xuŋa (匈奴), but their divisions were more numerous. From East of the Western Sea (西海), following mountains and valleys, (their numbers) were endless:


North of the Tuğlaq River (獨洛) are the Buqut (僕骨), the Toŋra (同羅), the Uyğur (韋紇), the Bayarqu (拔也古), and Bulaq (覆羅), (who are all) commanded by an Erkin (俟斤). Their surnames are the Meng-chen (蒙陳), Tu-ru-chi (吐如紇), Sıqar (斯結), Xun (渾), and Hu-xue (斛薛). They are capable of raising 20,000 soldiers.


Tuğlaq 獨洛 LH *dok-lɑk MC *duk-lâk ― Buqut 僕骨 LH *bok-kuət MC *buk-kwət ― Toŋra 同羅 LH *doŋ-lɑ MC *duŋ-lâ ― Uyğur 韋紇 LH *wui-guət MC *jwei-ɣwət ― Bayarqu 拔也古 LH *bɑt-jɑi-kʰɑ MC *bwât-jia-kʰuo ― Bulaq 覆羅 LH *pʰuk-lɑ MC *pʰjuk-lâ ― Erkin 俟斤 LH *dẓɨə-kɨən MC *dẓɨ-kjən ― Meng-chen 蒙陳 LH *moŋ-ḍin MC *muŋ-ḍjen ― Tu-ru-chi 吐如紇 LH *tʰɑ-ńɑ-guət MC *tʰuo-ńźjwo-ɣwət ― Sıqar 斯結 LH *sie-ket MC *sje-kiet ― Hun 渾 LH *ɣuən MC *ɣwən ― Hu-xue 斛薛 LH *gok-siat MC *ɣuk-sjät.


West of Yi-wu (伊吾), and north of Arşi (焉耆), on the side of Aqtağ Mountain (白山) are the Qi-bi (契弊), Bo-luo-zhi (薄落職), Yedivar (乙咥), Śavar (蘇婆), Na-he (那曷), Avar (烏讙), Qırğır (紇骨), Ye-die (也咥), and the Varxun (< Xunıvar) (於尼讙). They are capable of raising 20,000 soldiers.


Yi-wu 伊吾 LH *ʔi-ŋɑ MC *ʔi-ŋuo ― Arşi 焉耆 LH *ɨan-gɨ MC *jän-gyi ― Kuo-bi 契弊 LH *kʰuɑt-bias MC *kʰuâr-bjiäi ― Bo-luo-zhi 薄落職 LH *bɑk-lɑk-tśɨk MC *bâk-lâk-tśjək ― Yedivar 乙咥 LH *ʔi-det MC *ʔjet-diet ― Savar 蘇婆 LH *sɑ-bɑi MC *suo-bwâ ― Na-he 那曷 LH *nɑ-gɑt MC *nâ-ɣât ― Avar 烏讙 LH *ʔɑ-huan MC *ʔuo-xwân ― Qırğız 紇骨 LH *guət-kuət MC *ɣwət-kwət ― Ye-die 也咥 LH *ʔjɑi-det MC *ʔjia-diet ― Varxun 於尼讙 *ʔɑ-ṇi-huan MC *ʔuo-ṇi-xwân


To the South-West of the Altay Mountains (金山), there are the Sır Yan-tuo (薛延陀), Die-le-er (咥勒兒), Shi-pan (十槃), and the Darqat (達契), with more than 10,000 soldiers.


Sır Yan-tuo 薛延陀 LH *siat-jan-dɑi MC *sjät-jian-dâ ― Die-le-er 咥勒兒 LH *det-lək-ńe MC *diet-lək-ńźje ― Shi-pan 十槃 "ten" + LH *bɑn MC *bwân ― Darqat 達契 LH *dɑt-kʰuɑt MC *dât-kʰwât


North of the Kang-guo (康國), near the Ätil River (阿得), are the He-die (訶咥), Aqatğır (曷嶻), Bo-hu (撥忽), Bi-gan (比干), Ju-hai (具海), He-bi-xi (曷比悉), He-cuo-su (何嵯蘇), Ba-ye-wei (拔也未), and Qazar (渴達). They are capable of raising more than 30,000 soldiers.


Kang-guo 康國 LH *kʰɑŋ MC *kʰâŋ + "country" ― Atıl 阿得 LH *ʔɑ-tək MC *ʔâ-tək ― He-die 訶咥 LH *hɑi-det MC *hâ-diet ― Aqatğır 曷嶻 LH *gɑt-dzet MC *ɣât-dziet ― Bo-hu 撥忽 LH *bɑt-huət MC *bwât-xwət ― Bi-gan 比干 LH *bi-kɑn MC *bi-kân ― Ju-hai 具海 LH *guo-hə MC *gju-xâi ― He-bi-xi 曷比悉 LH *gɑt-bi-sit MC *ɣât-bi-sjet ― He-cuo-su 何嵯蘇 LH *gɑi-dzɑi-sɑ MC *ɣâ-dzâi-suo ― Ba-ye-wei 拔也未 LH *bat-ʔjɑi-mus MC *bwât-ʔjia-mjwei ― Qazar 渴達 LH *kʰɑt-dɑt MC *kʰât-dât


To the East and West of Lake Balqaş (得嶷), there are the Sarağur (蘇路羯), Üç Saqır (三索咽), Mie-cu (蔑促), Long-hu (隆忽), and others, capable of raising more than 8,000 men.


Sarağur 蘇路羯 LH *sɑ-lɑ-kʰɨat MC *suo-luo-kʰyät ― Üç Saqır 三索咽 "three" + LH *sɑk-ʔen MC *sâk-ʔien ― Mie-cu 蔑促 LH *mek-tsʰiok MC *miek-tsʰjwok ― Long-hu 隆忽 LH *liuŋ-huət MC *ljuŋ-xwət


To the East of Rome (拂菻), there are the Onoğur (恩屈), Alan (阿蘭), Peçenek (北褥), Qutrığur (九離), Fu-wen (伏嗢), and the Xun (昬). They have nearly 20,000 soldiers.


Rome 拂菻 LH *pʰur-lim MC *pʰjwət-lyəm ― En-qu 恩屈 LH *ʔən-kʰut MC *ʔən-kʰjwət ― Alan 阿蘭 LH *ʔɑ-lɑn MC *ʔâ-lân ― Peçenek 北褥 LH *pək-ńok MC *pək-ńźjwok ― Qutrığur 九離 "nine" +/ LH *ku-lye MC *kjəu-liai ― Fu-wen 伏嗢 LH *buk-ʔuət MC *byuk-ʔwət ― Hun 昬 LH *huən MC *xwən


North of the Western Sea (西海) is the Tuva (都波).


Tuva 都波 LH *tɑ-pɑi MC *tuo-pwâ