The Book of Jin (晉書) 97 (English)


The Xuŋa (匈奴)
The Xuŋa (匈奴) and the like are collectively known as the Bei-di (北狄). The Xuŋa border Yan-zhao (燕趙) to the South, the Ji (暨) desert to the North, Jiu-yi (九夷) to the East, and Liu-rong (六戎) to the West. From generation to generation, they’ve administered themselves, (appointing their own) rulers and officials. They do not report to the Central States on the first day of the first month (of the Chinese calendar). The Xia dynasty called them the Xun-yu (薰鬻), the Shang called them the Gui-fang (鬼方), the Zhou called them the Xian-yun (獫狁), and the Han called them the Xuŋa. The (times where their) strength and weakness rise and fall, where their customs remain good and virtuous, and the domains they (inhabit) are all listed in the histories.
Before the end of the Han dynasty, the Xuŋa were in a state of great upheaval, five of their Darǧas (單于) fought for the right to rule, and Hu-han-ye Darǧa (呼韓邪單于) lost his land. Taking command of his tribe, he (defected to and) became a vassal to the Han. The Han cherished their submission and cut off a prefecture from their border, settling them there. Thereupon, more than 5000 Xuŋa settled into the Shuo-fang commandery (朔方), mixing with the Han people. Hu-han-ye felt the Han’s kindness, came to the dynasty. The Han, because he had remained there, gifted him a palace. Because of his own title, he was called Darǧa, and over the years was gifted with cotton, silks, money, and grains. He lived the life of a marquis. His descendants multiplied and carried on, ceaselessly continuing each generation. Their tribes followed the (laws of the) commanderies and counties. They were ruled by a Shi (使) and had their households organized (together) by significant similarities, without losing tribute. Over the years, the households gradually multiplied. The Northern Territories swelled, (and) repeating incidents (became more) difficult to constrain. In the late Han Dynasty, the world was in turmoil, and the officials argued that there were too many vulgar Hu (胡). They feared they would certainly become raiders and that it was better to first guard against it. During the Jian'an period, Emperor Wei Wu first divided the group into five bu (部) divisions. Among them, the nobles were appointed as the Shi, and the Han were selected as Sima (司馬) to supervise them. After the collapse of the Wei, the Shi became Commandants (都尉). The Commandant of the Bu on the left administered over 11,000 Luo (落) in the Kuçar (茲氏) county of Tai-yuan (太原). The Commandant of the Bu on the right administered more than 6,000 Luo in Qi (祁) county. The Commandant of the southern Bu administered more than 3,000 Luo and they lived in Pu-zi (蒲子) county. The Commandant of the northern Bu administered more than 4,000 Luo in Xin-xing (新興) county. The Commandant of the central Bu administered more than 6,000 Luo in Da-ling (大陵) county.
In the aftermath of Emperor Wu plan, the Xuŋa outside the Great Wall, the Great Lake, and the marsh were naturalized with more than 20,000 Luo. The emperor accepted them and made them live under the old city of Yi-yang (宜陽) in He-xi (河西). Afterward, they once more lived side by side with the people of Jin (晉). Because of this, Ping-yang (平陽), Xi-he, Tai-yuan, Xin-xing, Shang-dang (上党), Le-ping (樂平) and the various commanderies did not collapse. In the first seven years of Tai-shi, the Darǧa rebelled fiercely and occupied the evil city of Kong. Emperor Wu sent the Marquis of Lou (婁) He Zhen (何楨) to save (the city) and punish (the Darǧa). Zhen devised a very ambitious plan. Using fierce and tough masses, no less than the forces under his command, he enticed the bold Left Bu superintendent Li Ke (李恪) to kill to his heart’s content. Thereupon, the Xuŋa were shocked and submitted. They did not dare rebel again for a number of years. Afterward, out of resentment, he murdered an elder Shi. This gradually became a trouble on the frontier. The assistant to the imperial oversight advisor of Xi-he, Guo Qin (郭欽), submitted a report to the emperor that said:
“The Rong-di (戎狄) have always worried us because they are strong and violent. At the beginning of the Wei Dynasty, there were very few people, so the Rong lived in many of the northwestern commandants. Today they may obey us, but if our state falls into a disaster a 100 years later, Hu armies from Ping-yang (平陽) and Shang-dang will be in front of Ming-jin (孟津) before three days (pass). (The territories of) Bei-di (北地), Xi-he, Tai-yuan, Feng-yi (馮翊), An-ding (安定), and Shang-jun (上郡) will all be at the mercy of the Di (狄). Therefore, we must reflect on and imitate the strategic experts and powerful generals of the Wei who conquered Wu. We must send (forces) from Bei-di (北地), Xi-he, An-ding, and Shan-jun to fill Feng-yi (馮翊). We must collect criminals from various counties north of Ping-yang and relocate 40,000 families from San-he (三河) and San-wei (三 魏) to fill this area. If we can prevent the barbarians from plunging the Central States into chaos, then we can go from Ping-yang, Hong-nong (弘農), Wei-jun (魏郡), Jing-zhao (京兆), and Shang-dang, gradually relocating the various Hu so that we can prevent the four Yi from coming in and out (of these areas). (Only) by observing the previous kings’ policies of submission, (can) all ages find long-lasting rest.”
The emperor did not agree. In the fifth year of Tai-kang, the Xuŋa, Hu-tai A-hou (胡太阿厚), led his tribe of 29,300 people to naturalization. For seven years, there were, once again more than 100,000 mouths of various types, such as the Hu-du Da-bo (胡都大博) and Wei Sha-hu (萎莎胡) of the Xuŋa.