Etügän

One of the chief earth goddesses in the Turkic pantheon.

Etügän Eke (Old Turkic: 𐰇𐱅𐰰𐰤 - Ötüken) is a Turkic and Mongolic earth goddess.

 

Occurrences

She may have been worshiped by the Xuŋa who were recorded sacrificing to an earth god in the Hanshu:

貳師在匈奴歲餘衛律害其寵會母閼氏病律飭胡巫言先單于怒曰胡攻時祠兵常言得貳師以社今何故不用於是收貳師貳師怒曰我死必滅匈奴遂屠貳師以祠會連雨雪數月畜產死人民疫病穀稼不孰單于恐為貳師立祠室 The Er-shi (Army General) had spent a year among the Xuŋa. (During this time) Wei Lu had grown discontent with the favor shown to him. It came to be that the Yäŋgä Dowager became ill, (whereupon) (Wei) Lu instructed a Xuŋa shaman to (feign possession of) the former (Ju-di-hou) Darǧa, furiously exclaiming: “When the Xuŋa went to war, we offered sacrifices for (the benefit of) our warriors! (And we) always said that (if we) captured the Er-shi (Army General), we would sacrifice him to the Earth God! (You have finally captured him so) why have you not sacrificed him!” Upon (these words) they detained the Er-shi (Army General), who angrily exclaimed: “My death will certainly (lead to) the destruction of the Xuŋa!” The Hanzi character 社 roughly translated to "god of the Soil" and/or "sacrificing to the god of the soil."

In the Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan mentions her name when expressing his thanks to To'oril Qan and Jamuqa:

"Appointed by mighty Tengri, escorted by Etügen, we made our enemy, the Merkits, empty their breasts and tore their livers in half..."

Marco Polo mentions her alongside Natigay and their children as the wife of the Eath god. Natigay was worshipped by the Tatars and Mongols, and is likely a Mongolized mispronunciation of Etügän.

In Yakut mythology, Nyuken Etugen, Utugen, and Taptur Etugen are names of the underworld, the realm of demons and monsters.