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Oğuz (Oghuz)

The Oğuz (Old Turkic: 𐰆𐰍𐰔; Kharakhanid: ٱغُز; Ottoman: اوغوز) are a tribe of Oğuz-speaking people. Historically, the Oğuz sub-tribes practiced Tengrism; however, by the end of the 12th century C.E., they had mostly converted to Islam. Following their conversion, they would be known as the Türkmän. 

 

Etymology

 

Oğuz derives from Turkic *ok "arrow" and *ga[d] "tribe."


 

History

 

Classical Antiquity

Halayuntlığ

Xuŋa


Late Antiquity

Bayarqu

Duqa

Halat

Xalaç

Xunı

Yedivar

Varxun

Avar

Nezük Xunı

Tabğaç

Ürpän

Oğuz İli


Medieval

Bozok Wing

Gün Division

Qayığ

Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye

Bayat

Qacar

Alqabölük

Qarabölük

Ay Division

→ Yazğır

Tügär

Artuqlu

Tutırka

Yaparlı

Yıldız Division

→ Afşar

→ Qızıq

→ Bägtili

→ Qarqın

Üçoq Wing

Gök Division

Bayandur

Aq Qoyunlu

Dudmane Safavi

Bäçänäk

→ Çuvaldar

→ Çäpni

Dağ Division

→ Salğur

→ Äymür

Ulayundluğ

→ Yürägir

Deŋiz Division

→ İgdir

→ Bügdüz

→ Yıwa

Qara Qoyunlu

→ Qınıq

Sälçük


Modern

Azärbaycanlı

Gagauz

Qaşqay

Salar

Türkmen

→ Türk

Abdal

→ Yörüks


 

Late Antique & Medieval Culture

 

Habitation


The Oğuz as a whole were both semi-nomadic and sedentary. Those who lived in central Turän were more likely to be sedentary, while those who inhabited the regions near Xwäräzm were semi-nomadic. However, even those who lived in central Turän could be semi-nomadic. For instance, the Yedivar army was said to reside outside a city's walls, living in felt yurts. These yurts, such as those belonging to the Xaqan, could be very extravagant. The Monasteries of Luoyang notes that the Yedivar Xaqan would pitch "a large felt yurt that [was] forty paces square. Kilims made of wool [were] hung all around the walls."


Migration was typical for semi-nomadic Oğuz tribes. The Monasteries of Luoyang notes that the tribes of the Yedivar "migrate[d in search] of water and grass. In the summer, they [sought] cool [lands]. In the winter, they [sought] warm [lands]."


Soceity


As with all pre-modern Turkic people, sex and gender were one and the same within Oğuz soceity. Men and women were said to have distinct roles; however, there were also many roles that overlapped. For instance, both Oğuz men and women were capable warriors and expert archers, horseriders, and athletes.


Traditionally, women were monogamous while men could be polygamous. However, this did not necessarily apply to royalty. It is noted that Yedivar queens were known to have several husbands. In fact, in their case, it was the man who was monogamous. The Book of Wei records this practice as such:


"(Now) it is their custom that all the brothers share one wife. If the husband does not have any brothers, then the wife wears a horned cap. If the husband does have brothers, then the wife wears a cap with as many horns as there are brothers."



Notes
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